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Only a few of his poems were published. In emphasizing the importance of the Rowshani movement for Pashtun culture, I refer not only to the amount and significance of the texts produced by the followers of the movement and their opponents, but also to the beginning of the conscious use of the Pashto language. As was mentioned earlier, the founder of the Rowshani movement was not himself a Pashtun.
However, as often happens to charismatic leaders, he was not welcomed in his native community and eventually was forced to look for refuge among the Pashtuns, where he began to put his teaching into written shape.
Like many other Muslim thinkers, at times he simply followed the well-established tradition of writing in Arabic and Persian, the languages of theology and high culture.
Since Sufi guides became po- litical figures and witch-doctors, affiliation to a number of Sufi authorities became possible. For more educated men, Sufi affiliation became a formal- ity which was necessary for the improvement of their social status. According to Raverty , p. Kushev , p.
Kushev , pp. This text is called a poem, although it has neither rhyme nor meter. They differ considerably in the arrangement of chapters and slightly in their contents. The work is very popular among the Pa- shtuns and a large number of manuscripts of it are available in the Pashtun lands. Thirty-five copies, the earliest from the eighteenth century, are mentioned in the academic literature see Blumhardt and MacKenzie , pp. Neverthe- less, he was proud to claim that as a master of the pen he was the equal of the famous Rowshani poets.
During the Pashtun expansion to the South in the 14th—17th cen- turies, the Khattaks settled between the Indus River and Peshawar. They occupied a strategic position and controlled the vitally impor- tant Khyber Pass, which connects India with what is now Afghani- stan. Thus they became one of the few Pashtun tribes to come into close contact with the Mughal Empire. When he was released from the imperial prison he joined the rebel confederacy of the Pashtun Afridi and Momand tribes.
As usual in their dealings with the Pashtuns, the Mughals used the power of gold. He therefore resigned the tribal chieftainship in favor of his eldest son Ashraf, and devoted himself to books and literature. The fig- ure is no doubt an exaggeration.
Nevertheless, he is the author of numerous works, both in Persian and Pashto, on a wide range of subjects such as war and statecraft, medicine, divination, falconry, house-building, childrearing, theology and ethics. He left an ac- count of his checkered life and his family history as well as some translations from Arabic. His meter is still syllabic, but the rhythm is created by stress, which is not fixed in Pashto.
The stress usually recurs on every fourth syllable MacKenzie , pp. His poetry is courageous, harsh and straightforward. As a proud and warlike Pashtun, he is quite dis- tinct from the sophisticated and elegant Persian poets. Motivated by a strong desire to liberate his fellow countrymen from the Mughals, he used his poetical gift as a weapon in the political and military struggle. He wrote about religious problems, national hopes, personal ambitions and failures, erotic experience, and everyday business.
They were Sufis, little inter- ested in politics, warfare and adventurous pursuits. The two poets differed not only in their mental outlook, but also in their poetical technique. Abd-al-Hamid was the most enthusiastic pro- tagonist of the Indian style of Persian poetry in Pashto literature. He even succeeded in adapting Pashto to the rules of aruz. Later classical poetry This period lasted until the establishment of the first quasi-state formations in the Pashtun lands, viz.
Ahmad Shah r. Although the ruling dynasties were always Pashtun, the language was considered barbaric, and was banned from court life and marginalized. Pashto literary activities were confined to the fringes of Durrani society, where many poets nevertheless continued to write Pashto poetry mainly for a non-elite public.
Prose writing Apart from poetry, Pashtun authors also produced prose works. Most of these dealt with contem- porary events, but some attempted to present a general picture of Pashtun tribal history, starting from early times. Some of these his- tories were written in verse. Afzal Khan Khattak c. After a short spell as a chief of the Khattak tribe, he left his homeland for the friendly country of the Afridis in order to avoid confrontation with his relatives contending the chieftainship.
The fifth daftar mainly describes the geneal- ogy and migration of various Pashtun tribes, and the sixth is de- voted to the history of the Khattaks. The seventh daftar deals with the lives of various Pashtun shaikhs. The Rowshani movement is briefly mentioned in the last four daftars of the book. Thus, a history of the Durrani tribe entitled Tadhkerat al- moluk was compiled at the time of Ahmad Shah Raverty , pp.
Tribal histories were not only written at the Durrani court, lesser chiefs also commissioned these works. Apart from tribal histories and chronicles in prose, Pashto literature has a well- developed tradition of writing versified histories, which lasted un- til the early twentieth century see Girs , pp.
Conclusion Thus, the classical period of Pashto literature spanning, more than three hundred years, saw the introduction and accommodation of some forms of classical Arabo-Persian literature.
While the classi- cal topoi of this literature were freely adopted by Pashtun authors, the rules of Arabo-Persian prosody were more difficult to follow because of the peculiarities of the Pashto language. However, by following the rules of folk poetry many Pashtun poets instinctively found a way out of this predicament.
Stead, F. Suri, M. Tehran, Weightman, S. Chapter 4 Andreyev, S. Peshawar, Kabul, Arlinghaus, J. The British Library, Shelf-mark Or. Aslanov, M. Sovetskoe Vostokovedenie 5 , pp.
Biddulph, C. Afghan Poetry of the Seventeenth Century London, Blumhardt, J. London, Esfandiyar, see under Mowbad. Delhi, Dvoriankov, N. Problemy Vostochnogo Stikhoslozhenia, Moscow, Iazyk Ormuri The Ormuri language. Moscow, Gerasimova, A. Literatura Afganistana: Girs, G.
Istoricheskie pesni pushtunov Historical songs of the Pash- tuns. I, Kabul, Afghanistan and its Inhabitants. Translated by Henry Priestley. Lahore, Catalogue of Pushtu Manuscripts in Indian Libraries. Howell, E. Caroe, trsls. The Poems of Khushhal Khan Khattak. Ibbetson, D.
Calcutta, Inozemtsev, I. Prigarina, ed.
Moscow, , pp. Keykhosrow, see under Mowbad. Kieffer, Ch. Afganskaia rukopisnaia kniga Handwritten Afghan book. Mos- cow, Idem Kushef. La- hore, Leyden, J. Livshits, V. MacKenzie, D. Poems from the Diwan of Khushhal Khan Khattak. Sperl and C.
Shackle, eds. Leiden, New york, Koln, Majrouh Majrooh , S. Mannanov, A. Pashto Quarterly 7. Masson, V. Romodin, Istoria Afganistana History of Af- ghanistan.
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EI2, s. Nurzai, Gul Mukhammad. Iranskaia filologia.
Gazetteer of the Peshawar District, — Pelevin, M. Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, St Petersburg, Plowden, H. The Gulshan-i-Roh: Notes on Afghanistan and Part of Baluchistan. Reisner, I. Razvitie feodalizma i obrazovanie gosudarstva u afgantsev The development of feudalism and the establishment of state among Afghans.
Kabul, , pp. Rizvi, S. Chapter 5 Adeleye, M. Afridi, Qabil Khan. Life and Work. Ahmed, A. Prof Yar Mohammad Maghmoom Khattak pointed out that the new Pashto poetry collection could be termed a reflection of typical Pakhtun society which was still reluctant to give women their due place and rights. He said her poetry was a resistance against injustice and misconduct being meted out to womenfolk everywhere.
Prof Abaseen Yousafzai while appreciating the new title stated that woman poets and writers had achieved big milestone in KP by bringing out their literary works over the last decade. He said Ms Kalim was one of those poets who advocated rights of women, including education, healthcare and role in decision making alongside men in the society. Prof Sher Zaman Seemab in his paper said that Ms Kalim belonged to a respectable family in Malakand having a scholastic and literary background while she being a highly educated woman struggled hard to bring out her poetry to pave way for other young writers of her area and women at large.
On this occasion, Dr Roshan Kalim said that she had got inspiration from her two poet brothers — Hasham Khan and Noorul Haq who had authored several books. She said the basic objective of publication of her poetry was to raise a befitting voice for the women rights.
Originally published in Dawn, March 2nd, Pashto poetry book credited for championing women's rights Published Mar 02, Sher Alam Shinwari Dawn contributor.